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In an analysis of American history textbooks, she highlights word choices that repetitively "normalize" slavery and the inhumane treatment of Black people p.
She also notes the frequent showcasing of White abolitionists and actual exclusion of Black abolitionists, as well as the fact that Black Americans had been mobilizing for abolition for centuries before the major White American push for abolition in the 19th century.
She ultimately asserts the presence of a masternarrative that centers Europe and its associated peoples White people in school curriculum, particularly as it pertains to history.
Elson provides detailed information about the historic dissemination of simplistic and negative ideas about non-White races.
White culture, at the turn of the 20th century. White supremacy has been depicted in music videos , feature films , documentaries , journal entries, and on social media.
The silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Duke , a former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan , believed that the Internet was going to create a "chain reaction of racial enlightenment that will shake the world.
There certainly were hate groups before the Internet and social media. It could be to raise money, or it could be to engage in attacks on social media.
Some of the activity is virtual. Some of it is in a physical place. Social media has lowered the collective-action problems that individuals who might want to be in a hate group would face.
You can see that there are people out there like you. That's the dark side of social media. With the emergence of Twitter in , and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in , an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Daniels discussed the emergence of other social media outlets such as 4chan and Reddit , which meant that the "spread of white nationalist symbols and ideas could be accelerated and amplified.
In the latest wave of white supremacy, in the age of the Internet, Blee sees the movement as having primarily become a virtual one, in which divisions between groups become blurred: "[A]ll these various groups that get jumbled together as the alt-right and people who have come in from the more traditional neo-Nazi world.
We're in a very different world now. A series on YouTube hosted by the grandson of Thomas Robb , the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, "presents the Klan's ideology in a format aimed at kids — more specifically, white kids.
A sign that greets people who enter the town states " Diversity is a code for white genocide. The comic book super hero Captain America , in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in In , Winston Churchill told the Palestine Royal Commission : "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia.
I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.
A number of Southern African nations experienced severe racial tension and conflict during global decolonization , particularly as white Africans of European ancestry fought to protect their preferential social and political status.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire , and it continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner -dominated National Party after the general election of Apartheid's legislation divided inhabitants into four racial groups—"black", "white", "coloured", and "Indian", with coloured divided into several sub-classifications.
In Rhodesia a predominantly white government issued its own unilateral declaration of independence from the United Kingdom during an unsuccessful attempt to avoid immediate majority rule.
Nazism promoted the idea of a superior Germanic people or Aryan race in Germany during the early 20th century. Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that white people were members of an Aryan " master race " which was superior to other races, particularly the Jews , who were described as the "Semitic race", Slavs , and Gypsies , which they associated with "cultural sterility".
Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan or Germanic peoples and Jewish culture.
As the Nazi Party 's chief racial theorist, Alfred Rosenberg oversaw the construction of a human racial "ladder" that justified Hitler's racial and ethnic policies.
Rosenberg promoted the Nordic theory , which regarded Nordics as the "master race", superior to all others, including other Aryans Indo-Europeans.
In establishing a restrictive entry system for Germany in , Hitler wrote of his admiration for America's immigration laws: "The American Union categorically refuses the immigration of physically unhealthy elements, and simply excludes the immigration of certain races.
German praise for America's institutional racism, previously found in Hitler's Mein Kampf , was continuous throughout the early s, and Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.
The Nazis used the Mendelian inheritance theory to argue that social traits were innate, claiming that there was a racial nature associated with certain general traits such as inventiveness or criminal behavior.
According to the annual report of Germany's interior intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution , at the time there were 26, right-wing extremists living in Germany, including neo-Nazis.
Neo-Nazi organisations embracing white supremacist ideology are present in many countries of the world. In , it was claimed that Russian neo-Nazis accounted for "half of the world's total".
Fifty-one people died from two consecutive terrorist attacks at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre by an Australian white supremacist carried out on 15 March On 27 August , the shooter was sentenced to life without parole.
The term white supremacy is used in some academic studies of racial power to denote a system of structural or societal racism which privileges white people over others, regardless of the presence or the absence of racial hatred.
White racial advantages occur at both a collective and an individual level ceteris paribus , i. Legal scholar Frances Lee Ansley explains this definition as follows:.
By "white supremacy" I do not mean to allude only to the self-conscious racism of white supremacist hate groups. I refer instead to a political, economic and cultural system in which whites overwhelmingly control power and material resources, conscious and unconscious ideas of white superiority and entitlement are widespread, and relations of white dominance and non-white subordination are daily reenacted across a broad array of institutions and social settings.
This and similar definitions have been adopted or proposed by Charles W. Mills ,  bell hooks ,  David Gillborn ,  Jessie Daniels,  and Neely Fuller Jr,  and they are widely used in critical race theory and intersectional feminism.
Some anti-racist educators, such as Betita Martinez and the Challenging White Supremacy workshop, also use the term in this way. The term expresses historic continuities between a pre— civil rights movement era of open white supremacy and the current racial power structure of the United States.
It also expresses the visceral impact of structural racism through "provocative and brutal" language that characterizes racism as "nefarious, global, systemic, and constant".
The term's recent rise in popularity among leftist activists has been characterized by some as counterproductive. John McWhorter has described the use of "white supremacy" as straying from its commonly accepted meaning to encompass less extreme issues, thereby cheapening the term and potentially derailing productive discussion.
He claims that the term should be reserved for those who are trying to promote the idea that whites are inherently superior to blacks and not used to characterize less blatantly racist beliefs or actions.
Supporters of Nordicism consider the "Nordic peoples" to be a superior race. Das Heer — Entwicklung des organisatorischen Aufbaues. Die Blitzfeldzüge — Volume 2.
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The economics of the war with Nazi Germany. Cambridge University Press. II, p. Scandinavian Economic History Review.
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Harmandsworth, England: Penguin. Jörgensen, Christer. Surrey: Allan. Stopped at Stalingrad. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
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The American Historical Review. Heroines of the Soviet Union Oxford: Osprey. The Battle for Leningrad: — The Bulletin of International News.
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Tallinn: Varrak. Army News. Northern Territory, Australia. Retrieved 15 April — via Trove. Salo, Vello ed. Estonian Encyclopedia Publishers. Gazeta Wyborcza in Polish : Retrieved 14 May Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, — Vintage Books.
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Harvard University Press. Yale University Press. Retrieved 7 March The enemy must really find completely burned and destroyed land".
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A High Octane Weapon of Victory. Oil of Russia. Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Citing K. Washington, The Telegraph.
London: Greenhill Books. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 10 July Oldenbourg Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Schramm 21 November Commissariato generale C. Ministero della Difesa — Edizioni , Romania: G. Krivosheev Tables — Micheal Clodfelter. German prisoners: G.
Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. In Leskinen, Jari; Juutilainen, Antti. Jatkosodan pikkujättiläinen in Finnish 1st ed. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö.
Arms and Armour , p. Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 9 July Internet Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 5 April WW2 Weapons.
D-Day: the Battle for the Normandy Beaches. History Learning Site. Retrieved 2 February CS1 maint: archived copy as title link.
Bellamy, Chris Anderson, Dunkan, et al. London: Amber Books Ltd. Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: — New York: Penguin Books, Berlin: The Downfall The Road to Stalingrad.
Stalin's War against Germany. New York: Orion Publishing Group, Erickson, John. The Road to Berlin. Erickson, John, and David Dilks.
Barbarossa, the Axis and the Allies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Glantz, David , and Jonathan M. Guderian, Heinz.
The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet sphere of influence , the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible.
But the over-riding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken.
Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and part of the German atomic bomb program.
The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers.
After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across central Germany.
They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund. On 29 and 30 April, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself.
Helmuth Weidling , defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviet forces on 2 May. German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability.
It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at hours Central European time on 8 May The war in Europe was over.
In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be 9 May, when the surrender took effect Moscow time.
This date is celebrated as a national holiday — Victory Day — in Russia as part of a two-day 8—9 May holiday and some other post-Soviet countries.
The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on 24 June. The German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.
A small German garrison on the Danish island of Bornholm refused to surrender until they were bombed and invaded by the Soviets.
The island was returned to the Danish government four months later. After the German defeat, Joseph Stalin promised his allies Truman and Churchill, that he would attack the Japanese within 90 days of the German surrender.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August , with an assault on the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang ; the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea , southern Sakhalin , and the Kuril Islands.
Apart from the Battles of Khalkhin Gol , it marked the only military action of the Soviet Union against Imperial Japan ; at the Yalta Conference , it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe.
While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there.
In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation, delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years.
The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often wilful disregard for human life by both sides. It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war, which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed ideologies.
Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union , Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale.
Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. This included the terrorisation of their own people, as well as mass deportations of entire populations.
All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front.
According to Time magazine : "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion.
Army Chief of Staff , calculated that without the Eastern Front, the United States would have had to double the number of its soldiers on the Western Front.
In War II Russia occupies a dominant position and is the decisive factor looking toward the defeat of the Axis in Europe. While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately German divisions.
Whenever the Allies open a second front on the Continent, it will be decidedly a secondary front to that of Russia; theirs will continue to be the main effort.
Without Russia in the war, the Axis cannot be defeated in Europe, and the position of the United Nations becomes precarious.
With Germany crushed, there is no power in Europe to oppose her tremendous military forces. The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries.
Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including those carried out as part of the Holocaust.
German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring whole village populations and routinely killing civilian hostages see German war crimes.
According to British historian Geoffrey Hosking , "The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater: since a high proportion of those killed were young men of child-begetting age, the postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than post projections would have led one to expect.
After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder—Neisse line , in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history.
Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage.
The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Soviet army advanced between and , were responsible for a rabies epidemic that spread slowly westwards, reaching the coast of the English Channel by The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively , in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power.
The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.
Adolf Hitler exercised tight control over the German war-effort, spending much of his time in his command bunkers most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia , at Vinnitsa in Ukraine , and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.
At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation-conferences at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and from the OKW staff with rhetoric.
In part because of the unexpected degree of German success in the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war-effort that eluded his generals.
In August , when Walther von Brauchitsch commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country.
In the winter of — Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse.
He later told Erhard Milch :. I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge.
And the army is staying at the front. The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders.
Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or with fanatical Nazis. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad , Korsun and many other places — resulted directly from Hitler's orders.
This idea of holding territory led to another failed plan, dubbed [ by whom? Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities, or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres, because Hitler would not sanction retreat or voluntarily abandon any of his conquests.
Frustration at Hitler's leadership in the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of , but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel SS and Nazi party members to prosecute the war.
Hitler's direction of the war ultimately proved disastrous for the German Army, though the skill, loyalty, professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end.
Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge :. From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception.
Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for some of the disasters at the beginning of the war for example, the Battle of Kiev , but equally deserves praise for the subsequent success of the Soviet Red Army , which depended on the unprecedentedly rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union , which Stalin's internal policy had made the first priority throughout the s.
Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late s involved the legal prosecution of many of the senior command, many of whom the courts convicted and sentenced to death or to imprisonment.
The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky , a proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik who opposed the mechanisation of the army and the production of tanks, but on the other hand purged the older commanders who had held their positions since the Russian Civil War of —, and who had experience, but were deemed "politically unreliable".
This opened up their places to the promotion of many younger officers that Stalin and the NKVD regarded as in line with Stalinist politics.
Many [ quantify ] of these newly promoted commanders proved terribly inexperienced, but some later became very successful. Soviet tank-output remained the largest in the world.
From the foundation of the Red Army in , political distrust of the military had led to a system of "dual command", with every commander paired with a political commissar , a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Larger units had military councils consisting of the commander, commissar and chief of staff — commissars ensured the loyalty of the commanding officers and implemented Party orders.
Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland , of the Baltic states and of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in —, Stalin insisted on the occupation of every fold of the newly Sovietized territories; this move westward positioned troops far from their depots, in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement.
As tension heightened in spring, , Stalin desperately tried not to give Hitler any provocation that Berlin could use as an excuse for a German attack; Stalin refused to allow the military to go on the alert — even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations.
This refusal to take necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the German-Soviet war.
At the crisis of the war, in the autumn of , Stalin made many concessions to the army: the government restored unitary command by removing the Commissars from the chain of command.
Beginning in autumn , units that had proved themselves by superior performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title.
These concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and to penal companies which carried out especially hazardous duties, such as serving as tramplers to clear Nazi minefields.
As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; he sidelined the victorious generals and never allowed them to develop into political rivals.
After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army though not as brutally as in the s and demoted many successful officers including Zhukov , Malinovsky and Koniev to unimportant positions.
The enormous territorial gains of presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. For the majority of people of the Soviet Union, the Nazi invasion was viewed as a brutal act of unprovoked aggression.
While it is important to note that not all parts of Soviet society viewed the German advance in this way, the majority of the Soviet population viewed German forces as occupiers.
In areas such as Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht was tolerated by a relatively more significant part of the native population.
This was particularly true for the territories of Western Ukraine, recently rejoined to the Soviet Union, where the anti-Polish and anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist underground hoped in vain to establish the "independent state", relying on German armed force.
However, Soviet society as a whole was hostile to the invading Nazis from the very start. The nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks , and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, especially those from the Baltic States, were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed.
None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour.
The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion.
Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and an attempt to conquer and enslave the local population.
Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in , Reichscommissariats were established.
As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population.
Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen task groups to round up Jews and shoot them.
The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.
As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in —44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.
The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs see Ostlegionen.
These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totalling Military losses of Civilian deaths totalled Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during —47, are not included here.
These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in — Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite.
Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some , young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands civilians more.
Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in the war to "3 million thousand people, unlike the former 2.
Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. By , 80 per cent of civilians and 20 per cent of POWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labour battalions.
Two per cent of civilians and 14 per cent of the POWs were sent to the Gulag. The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in reported 6,, victims out of a population of 27,, ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.
Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention , it is generally accepted that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Hague convention.
This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll.
Mass repression occurred in the occupied portions of Poland as well as in the Baltic states and Bessarabia.
Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.
The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of its war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land.
Stalin's five-year plans of the s had resulted in the industrialisation of the Urals and central Asia. In , thousands of trains evacuated critical factories and workers from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines.
Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing. As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives.
The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs. American exports and technical expertise also enabled the Soviets to produce goods that they wouldn't have been able to on their own.
Push your army through the borders of the continent and conquer nations. Build your base and upgrade it constantly. Manage your resources and invest them carefully.
You still want more? How about to team-up with some of the strongest alliances and giving a lesson to your opponents about what real team play is.
Trade, conquer and reign.